Circulatory or Vascular System - The circulatory system is the body's transport system. It is made up of a group of organs that transport blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood and the arteries and veins transport it. Oxygen-rich blood leaves the left side of the heart and enters the biggest artery, called the aorta. The aorta branches into smaller arteries, which then branch into even smaller vessels that travel all over the body. When blood enters the smallest blood vessels, which are called capillaries, and are found in body tissue, it gives nutrients and oxygen to the cells and takes in carbon dioxide, water, and waste. The blood, which no longer contains oxygen and nutrients, then goes back to the heart through veins. Veins carry waste products away from cells and bring blood back to the heart, which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and eliminate waste carbon dioxide.
Digestive System - The digestive system is made up of organs that break down food into protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs for energy, growth, and repair. After food is chewed and swallowed, it goes down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where powerful stomach acids further break it down. From the stomach, the food travels into the small intestine. This is where your food is broken down into nutrients that can enter the bloodstream through tiny hair-like projections. The excess food that the body does not need or cannot digest is turned into waste and is eliminated from the body.
Endocrine System - The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the body's long-distance messengers, or hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control body functions, such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The glands, which include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, thymus gland, pineal body, pancreas, ovaries, and testes, release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones to organs and tissues throughout the body.
Excretory System - The excretory organs: kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine, and lungs. Urinary system: two kidneys, two ureters, bladder, and urethra. The liver: largest gland in the body, it neutralizes or detoxifies toxic substances and functions in many other metabolic processes; its excretory function is the formation of urea, which is returned to the bloodstream and excreted by kidneys, and bile.
Integumentary System - Skin has a surface area of 1.4 to 1.9 square meters. Skin is the largest organ. Weighs about 3 kg. Protects the body by holding fluids in and keeping disease-causing microorganisms out. Pigments produced by the skin protect you from the sun’s UV rays. Produces vitamin D from the sunlight. Produces cholesterol, a lipid found in the membranes of all animal cells.
Immune System - The immune system is our body's defense system against infections and diseases. Organs, tissues, cells and cell products work together to respond to dangerous organisms (like viruses or bacteria) and substances that may enter the body from the environment. There are three types of response systems in the immune system: the anatomic response, the inflammatory response, and the immune response. The anatomic response physically prevents threatening substances from entering your body. Examples of the anatomic system include the mucous membranes and the skin. If substances do get by, the inflammatory response goes on attack. The inflammatory system works by excreting the invaders from your body. Sneezing, runny noses, and fever are examples of the inflammatory system at work. Sometimes, even though you do not feel well while it is happening, your body is fighting illness. When the inflammatory response fails, the immune response goes to work. This is the central part of the immune system and is made up of white blood cells, which fight infection by gobbling up antigens. About a quarter of white blood cells, called the lymphocytes, migrate to the lymph nodes and produce antibodies, which fight disease.
Lymphatic System - The lymphatic system is also a defense system for the body. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces white blood cells, and generates disease-fighting antibodies. It also distributes fluids and nutrients in the body and drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of vessels that help circulate body fluids. These vessels carry excess fluid away from the spacesbetween tissues and organs and return it to the bloodstream.
Muscular System - There are approximately 696 muscles in the body (347 paired and 2 unpaired). The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the body. Some muscles like the ones in your arms and legs are voluntary, meaning that you decide when to move them. Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines, and other organs, are involuntary. This means that the nervous system and hormones control them automatically you often do not even realize they're at work. The body is made up of three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Each of these has the ability to contract and expand, which allows the body to move and function. Skeletal muscles help the body move. Smooth muscles, which are involuntary, are located inside organs, such as the stomach and intestines. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Its motion is involuntary.
Nervous System - The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and nerves. One of the most important systems in your body, the nervous system is your body's control system. It sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout the body. These nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do and how to respond to the environment. There are three parts of your nervous system that work together: the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. It sends out nerve impulses and analyzes information from the sense organs, which tell your brain about things you see, hear, smell, taste and feel. The peripheral nervous system includes the craniospinal nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord. It carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary action, such as heartbeat and digestion.
Reproductive System - The reproductive system allows humans to produce children. Sperm from the male fertilizes the female's egg, or ovum, in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg travels from the fallopian tube to the uterus, where the fetus develops over a period of nine months.
Respiratory System - The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, trachea, and lungs. When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth and goes down a long tube called the trachea. The trachea branches into two bronchial tubes, or primary bronchi, which go to the lungs. The primary bronchi branch off into even smaller bronchial tubes, or bronchioles. The bronchioles end in the alveoli, or air sacs. Oxygen follows this path, passes through the walls of the air sacs and blood vessels,and enters the blood stream. At the same time, carbon dioxide passes into the lungs and is exhaled.
Skeletal System - There are 206 bones in the human body. The skeletal system is made up of bones, ligaments, and tendons. It shapes the body and protects organs. The skeletal system works with the muscular system to help the body move. Marrow, which is soft, fatty tissue that produces red blood cells, many white blood cells, and other immune system cells, is found inside bones.